Mariam Zamani was the mother of Emperor Jahangir.In this article, we are only going to discuss her identity.This article is mainly based on analysis and perception.
Mariam Zamani was supposed to be the daughter of Raja Bharmal the king of Amber.His daughter Hira Bai popularly addressed as Jodha Bai was the 4th wife of Akbar the 3rd Mughal Emperor.
The mother of Jahangir to be Raja Bharmal’s daughter was recorded only in one book of the Mughal era. That book is Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh, written by a Punjab Historian Sujan Rai Bandar, during Aurangzeb’s reign in 1695.There is no detailed information about the author.He had written about the history of Hindustan, in which Mughal history was just a part of the book.Sujan Rai mentions in his book that the Amber princess, the third wife of Akbar was Salim’s mother.First of all Amber princess was the fourth wife.He had missed the second wife who was the granddaughter of Munim Khan whose wedding was celebrated in 1557.He had missed it because he was not in the Mughal court.Since most of the information in this book is authentic and no other book reveals the identity of Jahangir’s mother historians are forced to believe Sujan’s statement of Jahangir’s mother.
Jahangir refers his mother as Mariam Zamani in his memoir and does not give her identity.He mentions Raja Bharmal’s daughter to be a lady in his father’s harem. He does not say Rajabharmal’s family members as his mother’s relation(The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; vol 1 page no 15)
The Rajput Chronicle is silent about it.
Akbarnama doesn’t reveal the identity of Jahangir’s mother.It is very astonishing.But the same Akbarnama mentions about the Jaisalmer princess, wife of Akbar giving birth to a girl baby and passing away in 1 year(Akbarnama Volume III page 283), but is silent about Amber princess giving birth to Salim
A firman of Mariam Zamani was traced.In that firman also her identity was not given.The name is mentioned by title Wali nimat Mariam Zamani, Mogolmother of Jahangir.
Salim’s mother was referred to as a royal concubine of Akbar in the book “The Empire of the great MongolBy J.S.Holland”.It is a latin book written by Joannes De laet a Geographer in the year 1631 during Shahjahan’s reign. Historian Vincent has a opinion that Delaet has copied it from certain reliable Persian chronicle, but certain historian doubt the authenticity of the book.page no 147-148-REF-Full text of “The Empire Of The Great Mogol” – Internet Archive
This article I had written analysing the entire Mughal history.This is my views.I would not claim it to be History.
First of all we should try to analyze how Sujan Rai Bandar, during Aurangzeb’s reign had written that Raja Bharmals daughter was Mariam Zamani.How did he come to know about it.There was no information among the masses in that period that Raja Bharmals daughter was Mariam zamini.Among the masses Muz was thought to be a concubine of Akbar as it is given in the book“The empire of the great Mogol By J.S.Holland”.The author had only written the view of the masses.Not even one historian of the entire Mughal era had written that Raja Bharmals daughter was MUZ, then how come Sujan came to such a conclusion.No foreign traveler or some other historian have hinted about it which is astonishing.
We should sit and analyze how he had come to this conclusion.First see the above painting.
This painting is from Akbarnama written much before Sujan Rai’s period.What do you interpret out of it.We could see the lady who is sitting as the mother of Jahangir is a Hindu. This is the evident by the tikka she is wearing and also by her dresses.Most of the ladies around her looks like muslims except few.The old muslim lady looks like Hamida Banu.So Sujan had come to a conclusion that the mother was a Hindu.Then he should have sat and though about the Hindus wives who had entered Akbar.s harem.Raja Bharmals daughter was the only one who had entered till Jahangir’s birth.The other Hindu queens entered only after Jahangir’s birth.So he should have come to a conclusion that Raja Bharmals daughter was MUZ.
Again analyse the picture.There is no elderly Hindu lady,Then in that case where was Jodha’s mother during Salims birth.
Now let us sit and analyse whether any other Hindu lady had entered Akbar’s harem before Jodha.If one read Akbarnama in detail then,he will come to know that Rani Durgavathy’s daughter in law who was a Hindu had been forcefully pushed into Akbar’s harem.She was the daughter of Raja of Puragadha a region near the sea coast of Maharashtra.She was very beautiful.
Today there is no place called Puragadha in the Indian map.But a place called Purangad is there.May be Abul Fazl had referred only this place.Purangad is a Hindu place in the sea coast of Maharashtra.The great Shivaji later constructed a fort in that place.Why I’m thinking in this angle is MUZ”s interest in trading.No Rajput lady had so much interest in trading like MUZ.Infact Jahangirs first wife was Jodha’s niece.Even that lady did not have interest in trading.Neither no Rajput male members had interest in trading.Nurjahan’s interest on trading was seeing her mother in law.
Why Raja of Purangad’s daughter had interest in trading.
There are 2 reasons for this:
1)Since Purangad was near the sea shore the princess should have seen the ship’s coming and going and could have devoloped a interest in trading.This talent of her’s was exhibited only after her son Jahangir became the emperor.
2)It has also been mentioned that trading flourished during Rani Durgavathy’s period.May be she also devoloped interest seeing her own mother in law.
Princess of Puragadha was so beautiful that Rani Durgavati had selected the princess for her son.She was brought to Gonda for the wedding.The wedding took place.After that the Mughals attacked Gonda, Durgavathy and her son were killed.All the ladies performed jahaur. People were appointed to burn all the ladies in a fort if the war was lost.All the ladies were burnt in a fort.Rani Durgavathy,s sister and her daughter in law were in a room where the fire could not reach.The Mughal’s captured them and sent them to Akbar’s harem which Abul Fazl had specifically mentioned that they were lucky to kiss Akbar’s threshold.(Akbarnama Volume II chapter 52,page 353)He had also added a line that though the wedding took place,it was not consumed(meaning she was a virgin).Why should Abul Fazl write such a line.Moreover the other two historian in Akbar’s court had not written about this lady.So it is clearly shown Abul Fazl who was very close to Akbar had known this fact and given importance to this incidence.
Again see the face expression of Jahangir’s mother in the above painting.It clearly shows that the lady was not happy.It is because she was forced into Akbar’s harem.This was the reason why MUZ did not involve in the controversy between Akbar and Jahangir.She had so much of hatred toward Akbar that she did not get involved in any of the affair.Salima,Akbar’s third wife and Akbar’s mother were involved in the negotiation between Akbar and Jahangir not MUZ .
MUZ gained importance and was active only during Jahangirs reign.Her firmann which was traced had been issued during Jahangirs reign.In the firmann MUZ had addressed herself as mother of Jahangir and not as wife of late Emperor Akbar.At the same time Hamida Banu in her firmann had addressed herself as wife of late Emperor Humayun.This confirms the hatred of MUZ towards Akbar .Moreover none of the foreign travellers in Akbar’s period or Jahangir’s have referred MUZ to be a Rajput.They only refer her as queen mother during Jahangir’s reign and gives no reference about any love between MUZ and Akbar.
Historical evidences that MUZ could not be Raja Bharmals daughter.
1.Abul Fazl does not give the identity of Jahangir’s mother,at the same time he had written about Shahjahan’s mother to be a Rajput and had given her identity.When Jaisalmer princess gave birth to a girl which has been mentioned in Akbarnama, then why can’t he mention that Raja Bharmals daughter gave birth to a son.
2.Abul fazl says that Akbar discourages wedding between cousin.If Jodha Bai was Jahangir’s mother then Jahangir’s first wife Mannbai is Jahangir’s cousin.Mannbai was Jodha’s niece.But Abul Fazl does’nt mention that they were cousin or doesnt give us an excuse for the wedding.At the same time when a wedding was proposed between Jahangir and Hakim’s(Akbar’s brother)daughter Abul Fazl was giving an excuse that though Akbar discourages wedding between cousin,since some good is going to happen he is agreeing for this wedding proposal.This clearly shows Jahangir and Mannbai were not cousins and hence Jodha was not MUZ.
3.Jahangirnama mentions Raja Bharmals daughter to be a lady in his father’s harem and does not mention her as his mother.Neither does he mention RajaBharmal to be his grandfather or Mann singh as his uncle.He only shows his hatred towards this Rajput family.At the same time he is close to MUZ and give her all respect and power.This again proves Jodha was not MUZ.
4,Shahjahan was very proud to say his mother was a Rajput.but he does not mention anything about his grandmother’s identity.This again adds on to the fact Jodha was not MUZ.
Again see the painting .The painting clearly shows Hamida Banu,Akbars mother happily in the scene taking care of the delivery.Where is Raja Bharmals wife in the scene.Most of ladies are Muslim and Hindu servant girls.If it was RajaBharmals daughter many Rajput ladies dressed richly would have been around her.Even one or two Hindu ladies around her looks like servant which Akbar could have posted since Jahangirs mother was a Hindu.The lady holding the baby looks like a Hindu having a sad face could be Rani Durgavathi’ sister who was forced into Akbars harem along with the princess of Purangabd.Both these ladies seem to be sad.
This clearly shows Jahangirs mother could not have been Jodha,but she was a hindu which had misguided Sujan rai Bhandar.I had only thought in his lines and had come to the conclusion that Muz could be princess of Purangabad who was forced into Akbar’s harem.The main evidence is MUZ’s interest in trading which was not there among the Rajputs.
What I had written in this article is only my perception and not historical facts.I had written my opinion in a subject(Who is Mariam Zamani) which is always debatable and doubt in minds of Historians.Im not telling what I had written is true fact but it has possibility to be true.I hope historian give a ear to my thought and think in this angle,dig history and try to bring out evidences.
I had submitted my evidences,rest is left in the hands of the people and Historians.
Salima Begum was a Mughal Empress.She was the third wife of Akbar the great.She was the second wife of Bairam Khan, the mentor of Emperor Akbar.After the death of her first husband Bairam Khan, she married her cousin Akbar. She was one of the chief queens of Akbar.
This article mainly concentrates on the relation between Akbar and Salima.
There are two views regarding the relationship.From the 16th century to the 20th century most of the historians documented that they had an excellent husband-wife relationship.But after the introduction of Jodha love story, a new version was introduced as if Salima was a motherly figure to Akbar.
I would discuss the various aspects events of Salima Sultana Begum; then we will come to a conclusion regarding their relationship.
SALIMA BEGUM’S MARRIAGE LIFE:
Salima was the daughter of Gulrangbegum, the third daughter of Emperor Babur.Her father was Nurud-din Muhammad Mirza.She was betrothed to Bairam Khan by her uncle Humayun during his reign.Humayun had promised to Bairam Khan that once the Mughals conquered Hindustan, he would get Salima married to Bairam Khan, Unfortunately, Humayun passed away soon.The Mughals captured and created a firm hold on Hindustan only under his son Akbar.Bairam Khan had helped Akbar to get hold of Hindustan.Bairam Khan reminded Akbar of the promises Humayun had done for him and asked for the hands of Salima(Akbarnama Volume II page 90).Akbar was cornered to accept the proposal for the sake of his father.History doesnt say whether Akbar was for or against the wedding.
Salima was 19 years when she was married to Bairam Khan who was in his late 50’s.It was a totally a mismatch.It was unfair on Bairam Khan to ask for Salima’s hands who was very intelligent, well cultured and a charming lady((The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri page no 232).She was a true royal blood.Humayun had betrothed her to Bairam based on a previous wedding made by Babur.
There is no documentation in any Historical Chronicle about Salima’s and Bairam khan’s wedding life.She being a true royal blood would have been loyal to her husband.
WAS AKBAR For SALIMA BAIRAM KHAN’S WEDDING:
Akbar was three years younger to Salima.One should read the description made by Abulfazl on Bairam khan’s wedding.
The following is an extract from Akbarnama regarding the wedding;(Akbarnama Volume II page 90)
“When Jālandhar became a seat of enlightenment owing to the arrival of the sublime camp, the Khān-Khānān applied his mind to the fulfilment of his claim, and begged the grant thereof from H.M. the Shāhinshāh. H.M., as under the guise of indifference he was treading the path of conciliation, signified his assent to the request, and promoted the marriage. All the Court ladies and specially Bīka* Maham Anaga showed great alacrity in furthering the marriage, and accordingly the marriage and the bridal procession (zifāf) took place within one week. M. Nūru-d-dīn was son of M. ‘Alāūddīn Muḥammad, who was son of Khwāja Ḥasan, commonly known as Khwājazāda Caghānīān. ThisKhwājazāda was grandson of K. Ḥasan ‘Aar, who again was the direct descendant of K. Alāūddīn who was the firstKhalīfa of Khwāja Naqshaband.* Let it not be concealed that the Khwājazāda Caghānīān was son-in-law of Sulān Maḥmūd, son of Sultan Abū Saīd Mīrzā. Pasha the daughter of ‘Alī Shukr Beg the third ancestor* of Bairām Khān, and who was married to S. Maḥmūd, gave a daughter whom she had by the Mīrzā to the Khwājazāda. H.M. Getī Sitānī Firdūs Makānī on considering these relationships showed favour to M. Nūru-d-dīn Muḥmud, in whom he saw marks of sincerity and loyalty, and gave in marriage to him his daughter Gulbarg Begum. Salīma, who was distinguished for good qualities, purity and nobility of disposition, was born of that holy one (Gulbarg B.). H.M. Jahānbānī Jinnat Āshiyānī had thought of this connection (the marriage with Bairām) on account of those relationships. Good God! What an imitative world it is! Because S. Mahmūd made a mistake aboutKhwājazāda Caghāniān, in that he made an alliance with a strange family, why was it that H.M. Firdūs Makānī followed this up by making an alliance with M. Nūru-d-dīn Muḥd.*, and for what reason did this alliance take place now in pursuance of what had gone before?”
Abul Fazl was a mirror image of Akbar;s mind.Abul Fazl was the historian appointed by Akbar to wrire about his reign.Akbar had also helped him in writing Akbarnama.After writing every chapter in Akbarnama.Abul Fazl used to read it to Akbar.So the content had been written according to Akbar’s view.
One could read in the extract that Akbar had agreed to the wedding under the guise of indifference.He seemed to be disinterested in the wedding.Bairam Khan was a very powerful statesman at that time.Akbar was a puppet under him.It was the initial stages of indifference between Akbar and Bairam Khan(Akbarnama Volume II page 89).Infact Akbar had a tough time in taking over power from Bairam Khan.Akbar was scared about Bairam khan that without his knowledge, he went to Delhi and from there he started accumulating power with the help of Maham Anga and overthrew Bairam Khan.Bairam Khan was also at fault.He started giving a lot of favor to his own relatives.All the royal servants were ill-treated and insulted(Akbarnama Volume II page 138).So Akbar was forced to take power.This shows that though he was disinterested in the wedding he was forced to agree.Moreover Akbar wanted to keep up his father’s promise.
One could read in the Extract how Abul Fazl had used the word mistake and had blamed both Babur and Humayun for this wedding.So it is clear Akbar had been very much against the wedding but for the sake of his father had agreed to it.Akbar should have loved Salima even before her wedding with Bairam Khan.It could have been a one sided love.But Salima was a well cultured lady that she was loyal to her first husband till his death.Akbar had no role in the assasination of Bairam Khan.Akbar was loyal to Bairam Khan till the end of his life.
Bairam Khan’s assassination
After Bairam Khan’s death Akbar married salima(The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri page no 232);.Infact Akbar and Salima were a better match than Bairam khan.Akbar had done a real favor for his cousin in marrying her who had become a young widow at the age of 21.
This clearly shows that Akbar had loved his cousin and could have been a single sided love.But we should not view it in a vulgar way for both of them were decent.After Bairam Khans death he married her and they should have had a good husband wife relationship.
OPINION OF BADONI:
Now let us see what Badoini had said about Salima.Badoini is another Historian who was in Akbars court and had written a book without the Emperor’s knowledge.He seemed to have an aversion towards Salima for one of his increment was cut by Akbar as a book of Salima was missing from the library(Muntakhab At Tawarikh English Vol. 2 page 389).Akbar suspected that Badoini had taken it and had punished him.Badoini usually do not like individuals who were close to Akbar,let it be wife,courtier or Akbar’s friend.He had infact adressed Salima to be Bairam Khan’s wife and later to have entered Akbar’s harem.He was harsh in mentioning her as a lady who had entered the emperor’s harem rather than Akbar’ wife(Muntakhab At Tawarikh English Vol. 2-page 216) This show the hatred Badoini had for Salima because Akbar loved her.
Akbar gave special permission to Salima to accompany Gulbadan to Mecca.Salima atga who turned to be rebellion was pardoned by Akbar for the sake of his favorite wife Salima.
AKBAR SALIMA’S LOVE AT OLD AGE:
Akbar was attached to Salima even in his old age.It was Akbar who selected her to go and negotiate with his son Jahangir.(AkbarnamaVolume III page no 815).This shows the trust he had on Salima.
When Akbar returned from Deccan he was entertained on the way to Agra near Fathepur by Salima in a garden specially laid out for her by Khwaja sandal.(AkbarnamaVolume III 795 see the footnote.It was revealed by Faizi)
SALIMA’S LOVE FOR AKBAR
Salima Was also equally loyal to Akbar.She was very affectionate with her stepson Jahangir and got pardoning from Akbar when he was in rebellion.Infact she was loyal to Akbar even after his death.She got pardoning from Jahangir for Aziz koka,the favorite foster brother of Akbar.This shows the love she had for Akbar and remembered him even after his death.
HISTORIANS VIEW ON AKBAR SALIMA’S RELATIONSHIP:
Historian Vincent had written in his book that Salima was the mother of Akbar’s son,though there is no clear documentation about it in historical chronicles.But this shows Vincent had felt Akbar and Salima has good husband wife relationship(Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542-1605 page no 102).Similarly Drik Collier in his novel had written that Salima was Akbars favorite wife and also had described their romance in a beautiful way.So all the historians had an opinion that Akbar and Salima had husband and wife relationship.
RUMOR BECAUSE OF THE FAKE JODHA AKBAR LOVE STORY:
It was only after the fake Jodha Akbar love story that the fans started the new rumor that they did not have a husband and wife relationship.The fans wanted Akbar to have sexual life only with Jodha which Akbar will not do even in his dream.Salima was one of Akbar’s favorite wife.Akbar had multiple favorite wives in his harem,which the fans failed to realize.Because of this the fans started spreading multiple rumors. They also started spreading the rumor that Akbar married her to save Rahim and her from Mahamanga.Akbar was all powerful.If that was the motive he could have made her stay with his mother and aunt and give her security.That case Akbar should marry a lot of ladies.It was only the love he had for Salima that he made her one of his chief wife.
Now we had come to the conclusion that Akbar had good marraige life with Salima and she was one of his favorite wife.Salima was loyal to Bairam Khan as well as to Akbar,that was the reason she chose a garden as her final resting place(The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri page no 233).She was a lady to be respected.
This article written to prove the authenticity of Tuzuki i Jahangiri.
Jahangir wrote his autobiography himself.
Once he wrote the first 12 years ,he made several copies.He gave the first copy to Shahjahan.Few copies of it had been traced after 300 years,in which Tuzuki is the authentic version.The copies that has been traced were translated.
The Tuzuki I Jahangiri is the authentic version of Jahangirnama proved by the historians.Tuzuki was first translated from the edition of Sayaid ahmad by Roger and then edited and released by Henry Bevridge.In the preface it was given that sayaid work was from a defective manuscript but then again edited and corrected by Beveridge using two excellent manuscript.One manuscript was from theBritish museum translated by Willim Irisine which was a very excellent and good version.The other one was in India and this is also a excellent version.2 good version had be referred by Henry and then only he had released Tuzuki i Jahangir.(See preface ofThe Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri;) It shows the hard work he had done to make Tuzuki Authentic.The different manuscript are not entirely different.There are only minute changes which Beveridge could edit using the 2 excellent manscript.These changes Could have occurred at any level.First Jahangir had his several copies written by different people,these minute changes could have occurred at that level also.Second is the condition of the book whjch has been traced 300 years later,which can also affect the translation(For instance Salima begums age is given as 62 at the time of death.that was wrong her age was 72.If one reads the page the account of Salima in that page was entirely correct except for the age.The age could have been hazy for the translator depending on the condition of the book,same as in the firman of Mariyam in 1572 where the second half of the name is not clear and hazy,so Historians could not locate whose firmann it was).Also Sayaid is described to be disinterested in his labour,so these small changes could have occurred even at that level.Any way Henry has really taken a lot of effort and had gone through all the manuscript and made Tuzuki an authentic version.It is definetly not a patch work of the different manuscript.Emperor Jahangir had written his autobiography whole heartedly with his own hands.So we have respect him,not falsely try to prove all manuscript is wrong create confusion and distort history to prove some fake love story to be true.So the book cant be just discarded to create confusion and distort history.
The details about the kids of Akbar’s and Jahangir’s is the same in both Tsuzuki i Jahangiri and Akbarnama proving Tsuzuki to be the authentic version.The mother’s identity alone is not given in Akbarnama, but it is provided in Tsuzuki. All the other details are same in both the books.
David price version is thegrabbed,unauthentic version.
The book has been manipulated for Sharyar and not for Mariam Zamani which fans interpret according to their needs.Sharyar was the son in law of Empress Nurjahan who was born through a concubine.When the first 12 years was completed Her daughter was not married to Sharyar.First Nurjahan tried Prince Khusarao,but since he refused she shifted her daughter to Sharyar.The book was altered mainly for this reasons.One could sit and read through the portion where jahangirs kid are given.Jahangir in Tuzuki has frankly given that Sharyar was born through a concubine.In Tuzuki,he had given only the name of surviving kids of Akbar and Jahangir which coincides well with Akbarnama.In Davidprice version just to alter the birth of Sharyar they had removed the word concubine in both the places and so many wives names and so many kids which has not been mentioned inAkbarnama had been given(Memoirs of the Emperor Jahangueir Page no 20).InTsuzuki Jahangir has stated with an open mind that both his last 2 sons are through royal concubines,which all historians agree.In David price version it is given as if Shahryar is born through the mother of Kuroon(Shahjahan),which is not given in any historical books of his era.Even in the letter of Aurangazeb to Shahjahan he had stated nothing that Shahjahan is the blood brother of Sharyar.In fact Shahjahan wanted all his sons from same mother so that there will be no fight between them.Apart from this there are so many appreciations of Nurjahan and her father, which Jahangir did not do it in the first 12 years.
COMPARISON OF THE ACCOUNT OF JAHANGIR AND AKBAR’S CHILDREN
The following is an account of Jahangir’s children copied
Khusrau and his sister Sulānu-n-nisā Begam, the latter of whom is my eldest child, were born of her—as before, ruler of the province of Bengal.Parwīz was born of Ṣāḥib-Jamāl (Mistress of Beauty), the cousin* of Zain Khān Koka, who, in point of affinity, was on the same footing* as Mīrzā ‘Azīz Koka, in the 34th year of my father’s reign, in the city of Kabul, two years and two months after the birth ofKhusrau. After several other children had been born to me and had been received into God’s mercy, a daughter was born of Karamsī,* who belonged to the Rāṭhor clan, and the child received the name of Bihār Bānū Begam. To Jagat Gosā’īn,* daughter of the Mota Raja (the fat raja), was born SulānKhurram, in the 36th year of my father’s reign, corresponding to A.H. 999,* in the city of Lahore. His advent made the world joyous (khurram),* and gradually, as his years increased, so did his excellencies, and he was more attentive to my father than all (my) other children, who was exceedingly pleased with and grateful for his services, and always recommended him to me and frequently told me there was no comparison between him and my other children. He recognised him as his real child.
After that (Khurram’s birth) some other children were born who died in infancy, and then within one month two sons were borne by concubines. One of these I called Jahāndār and the otherShahryār.*
After Khossrou, by the daughter of Sâeid Khaun, the son of Sultûn Saurung prince of Kashobar, I had a daughter, to whom we gave the name of Ouffet Baunee Begum. She died at the age of three years. Next to her, by Sauheb Jamaul, the neice of Zeyne Khaun Khoukah, I had a son born at Kabûl, on whom my father bestowed the name of ParveNext by the daughter of Derya Komm, a powerful Rajah at the foot of the mountains of Lahour, I had a daughter born, to whom I gave the name of Doulut Nisha Begum, who died at the age of seven months. Then another daughter by Beiby Karmitty, of the family of Râey Pour, whom I named Bahar Baunu Begum: she lived only two months. Next by Juggut Gossâeine, the daughter of Rajah Oudi Sing, who was master of eighty thousand horse, and than whom among the Rajahs of Hind there were few more powerful, I had another daughter, who received the name of Begum Sûltaun, but who did not survive her twelve months. By Sauheb Jamaul, who was the daughter of the Rajah of Luknou, came also a daugAfter him, by the daughter of the prince of Kashmeir, who was of the society of Jouggies, I had another daughter, who died a year old. Then by Shâei Begum, the daughter of Ibrauhim Hûsseyne Mirza, who was the grandson by a daughter of Mirza Kamraun, I had another daughter, who died before she was eight months old. Again, by Sauheb Jamaul, the mother of Parveiz, I had another daughter, who died at the age of five months. After her, by Juggut Gossâeine, the mother of Khorroum, I had a daughter, to whom I gave the name of Luzzet-ul-Nissa Begum: she died, however, at the age of five years. Again, by the mother of Parveiz I had another son, to whom, at my accession to the throne, they gave the name of Jahaundar; and last of all, by the mother of Khorroum I had another son, who received the name of Sheheryaur: both of these were born in the same month.hter, who lived only seven days; and by the daughter of Moutah Rajah* (Juggut Gossâeine) was born my son Khorroum.
‘One could see how the manipulation had been done to hide the parentage of Shariyar who was born through a concubine.It is more evident in the account of Akbar’s children which is given below.’
“Now i will give references from Akbarnama to show how the account of Akbarnama and Tuzuki i Jahangiri coincides.
On the eve of the 16th the daughter of Rāja Bhagwant Dās gave birth to a daughter* in the house of Prince Sulṭān Salīm, and there were various rejoicings. The horoscope according to the Greek method gave 18 degrees of Sagittarius and according to Hindū calculation it was 1 degree 41 minutes. The enlightened sovereign called her Sulṭān Khirad and, contrary to the usage of contemporaries, he had an assemblage to render thanksgivings. There was a great feast in the house of Maryam Makānī, and there was a presentation of gifts, and there was largesse.(AkbarnamaVolume III Page 746)
One of the occurrences was the birth of Sultān Khusrau. The Almighty Creator has adorned the honoured personality of H. M. with thousands of praiseworthy qualities, and his fortune is daily increasing. But the arrival of every thing depends on the movements of the heavens and is associated with a particular time. At this time which was the beginning of the spring time of dominion, the appearance of a grandson—which is one of the great gifts of God, and the most excellent fruit of age—the universe had new expansion, and mankind had new strength. After the lapse of ten hours and thirty-six minutes, on the day of Dīn 24 Amardād (about middle August 1587), the auspicious pearl displayed itself in the city of Lahore, in the bedchamber of Prince Sultān Selīm, from the chaste womb of the daughter of Rajah Bhagwant Dās. The news brought joy, and the Age set itself to rejoice. The coiners of celestial mysteries opened their far-seeing eyes and expounded somewhat of the glorious work of 524 the spheres and the stars.(Akbarnama Volume IIIPage 799)
In the beginning of this auspicious year a daughter was born to Prince Sulān Selīm. It was on the 28th (Farwardīn, 6 April, 1589) that the daughter of S’aīd K. obtained this great blessing. Contrary to the custom of contemporaries, it was made an occasion of rejoicing. H.M. gave the child the name of ‘Affat Bānū* (the modest lady).(AkbarnamaVolume III Page 816)
One occurrence was the birth* of Sultan Parvīz. On 19th Ābān after 9 1/2 hours he was born in the apartment of Prince Selīm by the daughter of Khwāja Ḥasan, the paternal uncle of Zain Kokaltāsh. There was great rejoicing.(AkbarnamaVolume III Page 859)
. On the 23rd Mir after 3 hours, 13 minutes, a daughter was born to Prince Selīm by the daughter of Kīshū* Rāhtor. H.M. called her Bihār Bānu. On the same night a daughter was born to the Prince by the Mota Rajah’s daughter. H.M. gave her the name of Begam* Sultan.(AkbarnamaVolume III Page 880)
On this day also Sultan Parviz had a sister born.(Akbarnama Volume IIIPage 888)
On 22 Farwardīn the world’s lord embarked on a boat and proceeded to the garden of M. Kāmrān. He enjoyed the spectacle of the spring. Next morning a happy-starred daughter was born in the harem of the Prince-Royal by the sister* of Abiyā Kashmīrī.
At this time a glorious son came into being, and there was a feast of joy. Inasmuch as the Incomparable Creator waters the garden of eternal dominion, auspicious sons were bestowed, one after the other, and the garden of fortune was kept verdant. Accordingly this noble record tells thereof. A fresh instance was when on the 26th (Dai) after four hours and 24 minutes, during the sign of Libra, the daughter of the Mota Rajah gave birth to a son in the harem of Prince Sulān Selīm (in Lahore). He received the name of Sulān Kharram.*(AkbarnamaVolume III page 921)
There is a mentioning of many more kids in Akbarnama,but nothing is mentioned about Sharyar as he was at the time of Akbar’s death.
Now one could go through the account and compare between the three books.Jahangir in Tsuzukihad mentioned only about his surviving kids which coincides with Akbarnama.Naturally he need not recollect and mention so many kids which had passed away.David price version and Akbarnama does not coincide.
This proves the authenticity of Tuzuki I Jahangiri.
The following is an account of Akbar’s children copied
Three months after my birth my sister, Shāhzāda Khānam, was born to one of the royal concubines; they gave her over to his (Akbar’s) mother, Maryam Makānī. After her a son was born to one of the concubines, and received the name of Shāh Murād. As his birth occurred in the hill country of Fatḥpūr, he was nicknamed Pahārī. On the night of Jumādā-l-awwal 10th, A.H. 979 (September, 1572), another son was born to one of the concubines. As his birth took place at Ajmīr in the house of one of the attendants of the blessed shrine of the reverend Khwāja Mu‘īnu-d-dīn Chishtī, whose name wasShaikh Dāniyāl, this child was called Dāniyāl.After the birth of Dāniyāl a daughter was born to Bībī Daulat-Shād whom they named Shakaru-n-nisā Begam.* As she was brought up in the skirt of my revered father’s care, she turned out very well.After some time another girl was born to this same Bībī Daulat-Shād, and he (Akbar) called her Ārām Bānū Begam.*
When he arrived at the age of twenty, Providence bestowed upon him his first child, who received the name of Fautma Banú Begum, but died at the age of one year. Her mother was Beiby Pungrâi. By Beiby Araumbuksh he had two sons, one of whom received the name of Hussun, and the other Hûsseyne. The latter was given to nurse to Bereijah Begum, the mother of Assuf Khaun, but lived only eighteen days; the other was consigned to the care of Zeyne Khaun Koukah, and did not live the tenth day. After these he had by Beiby Seleima Begum a daughter whom he named Shahzâdah Khaunum, who was consigned to the care of his own mother, Mereiam Makauny (who has her place with Mary). Among all my sisters, in integrity, truth, and zeal for my welfare, she is without her equal; but her time is principally devoted to the worship of her Creator.
Next was born to him by Beiby Kheira a son, to whom they gave the name of Pahry. The name bestowed upon him by my father was Sûltan Mûrâd, but having been born among the hills of Futtahpour, and a hill in Hindûstauny being called pahr, my father in familiar language usually addressed him by the name of Pahry, or mountain-born.Subsequently my father had by Meher Semmaa a daughter, on whom he bestowed the name of Meeti Begum; meeti in Hindûstauny signifying sweet. She died, however, at eight months old. After this he had a son by Beeby Mereiom who was placed under the care of Râjah Baharmul.To return to the enumeration of my father’s children, he had by Naun Beiby a daughter whom he named Lâla Begum, and whom he consigned also to the care of his mother, in whose charge she died at the expiration of eighteen months.
III)From Akbarnama The name of the mother is not given.
a)Birth of prince Salim
At length, in an auspicious ??oment the unique pearl of the Caliphate emerged from the shell of ??e womb, and arrived at the shore of existence in the city of ??atḥpūr. At the ascension-point of the 24th degree of Libra after ??even hours had elapsed of the day* of Rashn 18 Shahriywar, Divine month, corresponding to the beginning of Āb (August) 1880 Rūmī, 11 Bahman of the year 938 of the old Yezdijird era, or* the day of Dīn 24 Shahriywar of the Jalālī year 491, or 977 of the lunar era, the star of auspiciousness rose from the horizon of fortune.
b)Birth of Khanam:
Just then the news came that in the holy harem a daughter had been born on the day of Dībāẕar 8 Āẕar, Divine month, corresponding to Sunday 11 Jamāda-al-ākhir, 21 November 1569. He gave to that auspicious arrival the name of Khānam,* and ordered rejoicings. It is hoped that the notes of auspiciousness in her will increase day by day and that she will be a cause of increased life and fortune to the lord of the world. After some days when high and low had been delighted with the hunting, he returned to the capital.
c)BIRTH OF PRINCE SHĀH MURĀD.
. Among these blessings was this, that in this fortunate year, after the passing of fifty-two seconds (pul) of the night of Asmān, the 27th Khirdād, Divine month, Thursday, 3 Muḥarram 978, 7 June 1570, 29 Khirdād, of 1881, 492 Jalālī Malikī, corresponding* to 17 Ābān 939 of Yezdijird, 8 Ḥazīrān 1881 Rūmī, under Capricorn according to the Greek philosophers, and Sagittarius, according to the Indian sages, a noble son, in whose forehead the lights of high fortune were visible, appeared in the fortunate quarters of Shaikh Selīm in Fatḥpūr. A new rose of the Caliphate bloomed. In a fortunate hour the name of that fortunate prince was inscribed in fortune’s page as Shāh Murād. In rejoicing for the rising of this star of fortune, great feasts were held, and largesses bestowed. The skirt of time was made heavy with the coin of success (murād).]
d)Birth of Prince Daniyal
At the time that the sublime cortège was proceeding from Ajmīr, one of the secluded ones of the screen of chastity had come near the time of child-birth and was unable to endure movement or a journey. In searching for an auspicious place the house of Daniel* —a follower of the illustrious shrine (or M’uīnu-d-dīn)—was found. It was made empty and the lady was placed there. The cortège of fortune had halted in Phalūdī,* which lies in a desert (ran) belonging to the Sarkār of Nāgaur, when couriers came from Ajmīr and brought the joyful intelligence that after 41 puls of the night of Āsmān, 27 Shahriyūr, Divine month, corresponding to Wednesday, 2 Jamāda-al-awal, 9 September 1572, according to visibility* and to the night of the third according to supreme decree, under the sign of Aries according to the Greek philosophers, and of Pisces according to the Indian sages, the Giver of life and Adorner of the world had, in the blissful land of Ajmīr,* the longitude of which is 111°5′, and latitude 26′, bestowed on the Shāhinshāh a lofty-starred son
e)Birth of Aram Banu Begum
One of the occurrences was the birth of Ārām Bānū Begam.* On 12 Dai, 22 December 1584, divine month, and the 19th degree of Sagittarius, and according to the calculation of the Indians, one degree and 54 minutes, that night-gleaming jewel of fortune appeared, and glorified the harem of the Shāhinshāh. Astrologers announced the joyful news, and the world’s lord conferred on her that great name. It is to be hoped that the advent of this lady of the family of chastity will be the means of increased life and will be an adornment to the kingdom.
“Now one could see how wherever concubine name was given some Beiby name is substituted.The word concubine was avoided fully in the text to hide Shahriyar was born through a concubine.Nurjahan wanted Kusarao or Shahjahan to be her son-in-law because they were born to queens,but since they refused she accepted Shariyar. Moreover in Price version Shukrinissa is not mentioned.There is no documentation of the birth of Fathima in Akbarnama.”
This clearly proves that TUZUKI IS THE AUTHENTIC VERSION.
“for truth to win,one needs facts,for lie to win one needs confusion.”
This is only followed in creating a confusion about Jahangirnama.
Also one more think they are trying to gains is
“ when two cats fight the monkey wins”.
When the authenticity of the jahangirnama is being debated,the Jodha Akbar fans are trying to says all kids are born through Mariam zamani which is not there in any historical records.
The writings of Tuzuki coincides with Akbarnama ,Iqbalnama and Early travel in India.which is a book written by foreign travellers who were in Jahangir court. Children’s identity of both Akbar’s and Jahangir’s is same in both the books.Similarly events in Tuzuki coincides with Akbarnama and books written by foreign travellers in Jahangir’s court.
MARIAM ZAMANI(MUZ) WAS NOT THE MOTHER OF PRINCE MURAD.
This article is mainly to confirm that Mariam Zamani was not the mother of Prince Murad.
Prince Murad was the son of Emperor Akbar.His mother was aconcubine of Akbar[The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; vol I page 34].I had an argument with my friend about the mother of Prince Murad.She was taking evidence from the net and was arguing with me.I would like to narrate to you about the argument we had regarding this.It was a pleasant conversation.
The rumors and the discussion we had regarding it.
I started telling her that Murad was born in 9 months after Salima, so it is evident that Murad was not born to Salim’s mother(MUZ).My friend’s argument was, Prince Murad was a premature kid. The explanation I gave regarding this: There is no evidence in any historical chronicle till date that Murad was an early child.Murad was not a premature kid.Akbar did not meet Salim, and his mother immediately because it was a custom, that since the son was born after a long time, the father should see the kid after a long delay[ AkbarnamaVolume II page 502].Sources say Akbar saw Salim and MUZ in the third month.The meeting of Murad after his birth was also in the third month.Murad was born in June, and Akbar went to Fatehpur to meet him in September on his way to Ajmere, it means in the third month.This is the long delay which Abul Fazl had mentioned in Akbarnama.Akbar was very particular in treating both his sons in the same way since Murad was born to concubine.The meeting of Salim in the 3rd month makes it clear Mariam Zamani was not the mother of Murad.
She said Murad’s education started at 8 years due to suceessive ailmentand tried using it in her favor. My explanation for this was: Murad was definetly not a premature kid, but he could have had heridatory disease which was transferred from his mother to him.The same disease had also affected his son Rustam who passed away at the age of 9.Rustam was the first loving son of Murad.Abul fazl, in Akbarnama says Rustam used to get angry if he sees something improper and falls ill often[.Akbar tried his level best to save him.Infact he handed the care of Rustam to his great grandmother JijiAnga, who was an elderly person who took utmost care of him with great affection.Inspite of it Akbar could not save him.Rustam developed stomach pain and went into delirium and passed away at the tender age of 9.[Akbarnama Volume III page 1096]Rustam was one year elder to his step brother Parvis, but both started education at the same time[AkbarnamaVolume III page 995].Rustam’s education was delayed by one year due to health problem.Akbar wanted to sent him to Gujarat, but because of his health problem, he was retained in the capital[Akbarnama Volume III page 1064].Both Murad and Rustam were intelligent kids.In those days identification of a hereditary disease itself was a problem.Even Murad had a weak constitution, for he passed away at 30 years.Akbars three sons were drunkers.Salim survived because of his strong constitution[Akbarnama Volume III page 1125].Daniyal was poisoned by the rust which was there in the spirit he drank, and and only Murad died due to his drinking habit as he had a weak constituion.Murad and Rustam both had weak constituion and suffered from successive ailment during their childhood.Murad was lucky enough to survive, while poor Rustam passed away.Both had the same heriditory disease which was acquired from Murad’s mother who was a commoner and a concubine.Being a medico she had a better understanding about what I was explaining.
The second evidence which she quoted to say MUZ was the mother of Murad is just interpreting lines from Akbarnama and Muntakhab ut Tawarikh to her needs:
I explained to her that interpreting lines of Historical books as you like is wrong.I told her, Anyhow you tell me about your interpretation.She started telling for which I was giving the proper historical explanations.
Celestial fathers and terrestrial mothers: She claimed that the term Terrestrial and celestial is cominig in both Salims and Murad’s birth and said this as a evidence. The explanation I gave her was this: This word celestial and terrestrial means planets and elements whose power the astrologer utilises to write ones horoscope.The word celestial and terrestrial comes in Akbars[AkbarnamaVolume I page 34], Salims and Muradsbirth[Abarnama Volume II pages 502,514.].This does not mean the parents of the kid.He only means that he is using the power of the elements and planets to write the horoscope of Akbar, Salim and Murad.
The next evidence she said was this line,“Feast of the same magnitude were held for both the Salim and Murad”.The explanation for this I gave was that Naturally if you have 2 kids you will celebrate both the functions in the same way, moreover Akbar was very particular because he did not want Murad to have a inferior feeling that his mother was a concubine.
The final evidence she gave regarding interpretation of lines was this line,
“From the pure light, like prince Salim,[Muntakhab At Tawarikh English Vol. 2 page no 133]there descended The standard of shah Murad bin Akbar the just”, she was telling that the pure light was the mother of Salim
I started telling her using this line as a evidence has no base in it.Anyhow I said her, that I will give a proper explanation for this line.Mughals have a lot of significance with light.The 22nd ancestor of Akbar was Alanquvai, who conceived through a light from heaven and not through human instrumentation and gave birth to the 21st ancestor[AkbarnamaVolume I page 179,180].The Mughals always says it is this light that had passed through so many wombs and finally had manifested as Akbar.Even during Salim’s birth Akbar is referred to as a light.So the pure light refers to Akbar and not the mother.Infact Abul Fazl had many times referred to this light as implanted in Akbar(Akbarnama Volume I page 287,396).
Secondly I said her that the base of the evidence itself is wrong. These lines were taken from the book Muntakhab ut tawarikh written by historian Badoni who was in the Mughal court and had written the book without Akbar’s knowledge. So he had a free hand to write what he wants without indirectly revealing it to the world.If he did not want to reveal the identity of Salim’s mother because she was a Hindu, then he will not use the word pure.
Lastly, She started debating about the authenticity of Jahangirnama.
I explained to her clearly that Tuzuki was the authentic version and David Price version is the unauthentic proved by Historian.It is not correct to create confusion to meet ones need.Anyhow no version of Jahangirnama says MUZ was the mother of other kids of Akbar except Jahangir. Also one more think I said her was that in what she was trying to achieve is “ when two cats fight the monkey wins”.I said her, you are trying to debate on the authenticity of Jahangirnama and in the middle trying to say Mariam Zamani was the mother of all the kidswhich is not given in any historical chronicle till now.
I also gave her the names of the book from which I took the reference from.She personally sat with me and went through and she was convinced that Muard had been born through a concubine.
I also made one thing very clear to my friend that none of any version of Jahangirnama, Akbarnama or any historical books claims Maraim zamaniwas the mother of all kids of Akbar.She was only the mother of Jahangir.
PLEASE DO NOT IMMAGINE, INTERPRET, MANIPULATE AND DISTORT HISTORY.IT IS INJUSTICE DONE TO THE FUTURE GENERATION AS WELL AS TO THE MUGHALS WHO ARE NO MORE.
Moreover I read in the net people writing comments that the mother’s identity is given in Akbarnama and other historical books.I request the public to take the historical books, just to save time go through the index where the children’s names are given and go through atleast those pages so that the truth is known.
Note: This article is written with a good aim that history should not be distorted just for the sake of a love story.
Disclaimer: This has been written with what was given in books.It is not pointing to any particular person, site or blog.
Prince Daniyal was the third surviving son of Akbar the great.His mother was a royal concubine of Akbar.Daniyal was born in September 1572 when Akbar was on an expedition to Gujarat.Akbar took his pregnant wife with him.On the way when he was crossing Ajmer Daniyal’s mother could not withstand the journey as she was near childbirth.Akbar located the saintDaniyal’s sacred house and left his wife there and continued his expedition.On the way, he got the news that a boy was born.He thanked God and named his son as Daniyal t0 honor the Saint.Akbar issued an order that when the kid was one-month-old, he should be conveyed to Amber to be taken care by the Rani.After six months, once the expedition was over Akbar picked up his son on his way back to Agra.
So Akbar sends Prince Daniyal only for 6months to Amber.
WHY AKBAR TOOK HIS PREGNANT WIFE TO GUJARAT
When Daniyal’s mother was pregnant Akbar was planning on an expedition to Gujarat.This was crucial for the Mughals because there was confusion in Gujarat and an excellent opportunity for Akbar to capture it.Akbar was near Fatehpur Sikri when his other sons Salim and Murad were born.But since Gujarat was far away from the capital and regarding the safety of his pregnant wife he took her with him.Akbar’s mother Hamida Banu, Aunt Gulbadan and other main begums also accompanied him may be to take care of his pregnant wife.But it was not practical to make all the royal ladies to stay in Saint Danial’s house, So he took them to Gujarat.
When Akbar started from Agra, he did not have an idea to drop Daniyal’s mother in Amber.To have a better understanding, one should see the route connecting Agra to Gujarat.
In this map when you start from Agra it is Amber, then Ajmer.If Akbar wanted to send Daniyal’s mother to Amber, he would have dropped her on the way.But he crossed Amber and went to Ajmer.Saint Daniyal’s residence was not selected when he was in Agra for Abul fazl had clearly stated:”: one of the secluded ones had come near the childbirth and was unable to endure journey, so the auspicious house of Saint Daniyal was searched and made empty, and the lady was placed there.”This clearly shows Akbar had no idea to leave his wife even in Ajmer, for only when the camp started from Ajmer to Gujarat the problem started.So Akbar had some other idea Abul Fazl has not revealed it.
AKBAR’S WISE DECISION OF SENDING DANIYAL TO AMBER:
To understand Akbar’s idea, one should have a look at the entire route from Agra to Ajmer.
Try to examine the above map and you will understand Akbar’s wise decision,of sending Daniyal to Amber.Agra is quite far away and not safe for Daniyal as there was no responsible person in the harem.Amber was nearest to Ajmer.RajaBharamal and his family were always faithful to Akbar.One more fact is Raja Bharaml’s daughter was with Akbar in Gujarat; it will make Akbar more confident.The other dynasties which had made matrimonial alliances with Akbar like Bikaner and Jaisalmer were far away.So the best decision is to transport Daniyal to Amber.
This map shows that Udaipur is between Ajmer and Gujarat.The Rana of Udaipur was a deadly enemy of Akbar.Even when the camp crossed Udaipur Akbar was very cautious that the Rana did not create a problem. Akbar will not prefer his son to cross Udaipur and join him.So Daniyal was sent back from Ajmer.
Moreover, there was no elderly person to take care of the kid, since his mother and aunt were with him.Akbar always had a habit of handing over infants to elderly people, for Akbar feels they can rear them better.
I will narrate few incidents connected with it:
1)Shahjahan Akbar’s grandson handed over to his first wife, Ruaqiya.
2)Akbar’s first daughter Kannam handed over to Akbar’s mother Hamida Banu.
3)Akbar’s grandson Rustam handed over to his foster mother, Jiji Anga.
Similarly, for better care of his infant son, he had specified that Daniyal should be taken care by the Rani who was an elderly person.
WHY THE EVENT OF SENDING PRINCE DANIYAL TO AMBER WAS DOCUMENTED IN AKBARNAMA;
The first two incidences which I had mentioned above; Shah jahan-Ruqaiya, Kanam-Hamida Banu was not mentioned in Akbarnama, because all these events were personal and had occurred within his harem.Even Akbar’s wedding with Ruqaiya was not documented in Akbarnama.But Salima Begums wedding with Bairam Khan was documented as it was an event outside the harem, known to the public.All the events within the harem were mentioned only by Akbar’s son Jahangir in his autobiography.Akbarnama was an offical chronicle of Akbar’s reign,while Jahangirnama was his autobiography.Rustam-Jiji Anga was mentioned in Akbarnama only at the time of Rustam’s death. It was stated that Rustam being a weak kid was handed over to jijiAnga for better rearing but his life couldn’t be saved.So only events which are known to outside world and has political significance is documented in Akbarnama.
Daniyal’s mother traveling to Amber with her infant son
WHAT POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE THIS EVENT OF SENDING PRINCE DANIYAL TO AMBER HAS?
Akbar was honoring and showing respect to Raja Bharmalby sending Daniyal to Amber.This is noticed by the other Rajput clan’s and it paves the way for them to becomes allies to the Mughal’s. This is what Akbar wanted.He was able to use the Rajputs to conquer Hindustan without disturbing his economy.
MYTH: PRINCE DANIYAL WAS COMMITTED TO MARIAM ZAMANI:
Daniyal’s mother-Akbar’s concubine.
There is no fact in any historical chronicle of Mughal era or even after the era that Daniyal was committed to Mariam Zamani. After the fake Jodha Akbar love story the event of sending Daniyal to Amber has been twisted and such a story had developed.
Disclaimer: The photos that are posted in the article is to make it colourful.They are not the original picture of the personality we have referred to.The information in the article is not pointing to any particular person, site or blog.